About Khalel Dosmukhamedov
Khalel Dosmukhamedov - dedicated public figure
The main feature of the leaders of the early twentieth century, who dragged a carefree people into the steppes of civilization, was that they were all – round "eight-faced, one-faced" personalities. The fact that Khalel Dosmukhamedov is a political fighter, a fervent patriot, a scientist, a master of sacred art and a connoisseur of his profession is a great example for the next generation of young people. The origins of Khalel Dosmukhamedov's political worldview go back to his student years in St. Petersburg. During his studies at the Military Medical Academy, he saw through the eyes of the revolution of 1905-1907, which took place throughout Russia, shook the world, and the anger of the masses, bloody conflicts and bitter lessons of defeat contributed to the ideological formation of the future figure, whose knowledge of the spiritual world grew. In 1905, Kazakh intellectuals from five regions created a Constitutional Democratic political party in Teke (Uralsk), including Khalel Dosmukhamedov, a student of the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg. There are few evidence of Khalel's activities during the February and Great October revolutions. One of them is that in 1917 there was a general Kazakh-Kyrgyz Congress in Orenburg, which Khalel took part in, the newspaper ` KAZAKH ` reported in the issue of November 14 of the same year, where the TОRGAI regional committee was established, which consists of only 14 people (10 from Orenburg; 4 from counties). At the same time, Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, and Uralsk regional committees were formed. And Khalel is also specially invited to the KURULTAI, which was held from December 5 to 13. However, in the scientific literature and in the works of historians, this fact is not studied in detail. In July 1917, a Congress of supporters of the Alash movement was convened. It will be attended by more than 20 delegates from all over the Kazakh region. As a reference to the holding of this Congress and the chairmanship of Khalel Dosmukhamedov, we can cite the resolution published in the July 31 issue of the Kazakh newspaper. Resolution of the all-Kazakh Congress: "the all-Kazakh Congress opened on July 21 in Orenburg and closed on July 26. The Congress was attended by representatives of Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk, Torgai, Uralsk, Semirechye, Syrdarya, Ferghana regions and Bokeyliks. The chairman of the Congress is Khalel Dosmukhamedov, the chairman's associates are A. Baitursynov, secretaries: A. Kotybarov, M. Dulatov, A. Seitov." At this congress, resolutions were adopted, which considered 14 issues, each of which consisted of several points. The question of women was raised for the first time at this Congress. After that, five months later, in December, the all-Kazakh Congress was convened, which put on the agenda the main issues related to the creation of a national state-the national territorial Kazakh autonomy, the police, the Council of the nation, the treasury of the nation, the people's court. It was at this Congress that a resolution was adopted to call the Kazakh-Kyrgyz autonomy Alash. What kind of Service Khalel Dosmukhamedov held during this period, you can get an answer from the following lines in the biography written in his own hand in Russian on March 10, 1930. After the overthrow of Tsarist power, in April 1917, he was elected chairman of the Oral regional executive committee of the Kazakhs. In December 1917, at the all-Kazakh Congress, he became a member of the people's Revolutionary Council of Alashorda. Here, before the establishment of the Soviet government, he carried out Zemstvo cultural and educational work. At the end of March 1918, Khalel, together with Zhansha Dosmukhameduly, negotiated in Moscow with the chairman of the Council of people's commissars of the RSFSR V. I. Lenin and the people's Commissar for national affairs I. V. Stalin on the creation of the Kazakh Autonomous Republic. Unfortunately, this negotiation ends without success. After that, Khalel Dosmukhamedov held various socio-political positions in Turkestan and the Kazakh Soviet autonomous republics.
We should remember that Khalel is not only a dedicated public figure, but also an educator, scientist, and doctor. Before the Great October Revolution, only 20 doctors with special education were trained among the Kazakhs. In 1913-1920, Khalel worked as a district doctor in Temir district and participated in the eradication of the plague. There is no one who can provide high-quality medical care for diseases such as typhus, colds, syphilis, plague, cholera, measles, malaria, tuberculosis, etc. at the time of the mass death of the population due to diseases, the small actions of this terrible group, like sprinkling water with the wings of a swallow, saved the lives of many people. Of course, the presence of the Kazakh Ibn-Sina ( Avicenna in European), the great scientist, the owner of a multifaceted talent, Khalel Dosmukhamedov is a great pride! Khalel Dosmukhamedov, who remained faithful to his family duty to the Kazakh people until the last moment of his life, is one of the outstanding sons who left a mark on the history and cultural life of our people. Until recently, the current generation knew him only as one of the outstanding figures of "Alashorda", but his scientific, educational and pedagogical heritage was not sufficiently studied. During his lifetime, Khalel Dosmukhamedov, who was once a victim of the cult of personality and lawlessness, left behind a huge inexhaustible legacy. Thanks to this article, we are able to comprehensively study and popularize the scientific heritage of the Universal encyclopedist, who is an irreplaceable, tireless figure, an individual and a wise person, and we hope that this heritage is suitable for the spiritual interests of our people. Khalel Dosmukhamedov is one of the most prominent representatives of the Kazakh Democratic intelligentsia of the early twentieth century. He was a well – known state and public figure, a scientist, educator-teacher, a talented organizer of Science, Education, and healthcare in Kazakhstan and Turkestan. Historical documents prove that since the second half of the 30s of the XX century, a period of valyuntaristic decisions, gross mistakes in the sphere of public and party life, the strengthening of the administrative and command management method, the extreme manifestation of the cult of the individual in the form of serious crimes directed against the Kazakh people began. According to the famous scientist, academician–writer Zeynolla Kabdolov, in fact, the name of Khalel Dosmukhamedov, along with the names of Akhmet Baitursynov, Mirzhakyp Dulatov, Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Mustafa Shokay, as a cluster of bright stars among the Giants that created the era of the awakening of our people, is a fair assessment of our universal scientist, a rare gift for this life. Khalel Dosmukhamedov was born at the end of the nineteenth century in Taisoygan, where many representatives of Kazakh literature and art grew up, and graduated with a gold medal from the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg, where only the best representatives of that time and society studied-is not this a sign of amazing abilities, a special talent given by nature? During his student years in St. Petersburg, world-famous scientists who had a special influence on the formation of the educational worldview of the young Khalel Dosmukhamedov were the first teachers of the Academy: a great physiologist – psychologist, scientist, Nobel Prize winner, academician Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, an outstanding Orientalist, academician Vasily Vasilyevich Radlov, founder of the Kazakh linguistic school, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Boduen De Kurtune
A learned scientist
The period of full development of the rich opportunities of Khalel Dosmukhamedov's natural talent as a scientist was in the Soviet period. The most fruitful period of his social and pedagogical, scientific work as an encyclopedic scientist was the Tashkent period from the 1920s to the 1930s. This period is inextricably linked with the work of Kh. Dosmukhamedov at various levels of Public, State, Scientific and pedagogical, educational, organizational, pedagogical, and responsible work. At this stage, for a correct assessment of the merits and comprehensive scientific and spiritual heritage of Kh. Dosmukhamedov, it is necessary to consider prominent public figures and intellectuals of our nation, who at that time took part with him on the socio-political and educational front of the Republic, raised the flag of justice, in close contact with their colleagues and the scientific community. Famous public and statesmen of that time, prominent representatives of the Kazakh intelligence, scientists, famous masters of Kazakh art and culture together with Khalel in Tashkent Sanzhar Asfendiyarov, Turar Ryskulov, Sultanbek Kozhanov, Nazir Torekulov, Mukhtar Auezov, Magzhan Zhumabayev, Zhussupbek Aimauytov, Temirbek Zhurgenov, Alimkhan Yermekov, Mukamedzhan Tynyshbayev, Abubakir Divayev and other scientific institutions in the leading positions of the Republic of Turkestan, he worked in public educational institutions and higher educational institutions. It was during this period that all his scientific, pedagogical and creative works were born. In 1920, the Alash party was dissolved, and one of the leaders of its Western Branch, Khalel Dosmukhamedov, was pardoned by the Soviet government. In the same year, he came to Tashkent, where, along with responsible work in the commissariats of Health and public education of the Republic of Turkestan, he was engaged in teaching and scientific-pedagogical, creative work in higher educational institutions. During his 10 years in Tashkent, Kh. Dosmukhamedov became, in fact, the first organizer of the healthcare system in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. With his scientific and pedagogical activity, he made a special contribution to the training of specialists in the region, the organization of Public Health Protection, the development of public education and higher education. It is especially important to note that he contributed to the creation of the first textbooks and manuals in the Kazakh language for national schools and universities in Tashkent, consolidating the National intelligence around him. At the beginning of the XX century, when Kh. Dosmukhamedov headed the Education Commission of the people's Commissariat of education, he instructed and recommended a group of Kazakh intellectuals to write textbooks and manuals in the Kazakh language in various fields of Science for universities and national schools. For the first time on Kazakh soil, Magzhan Zhumabayev wrote a textbook "pedagogy" in Kazakh, and Zhussupbek Aimautov-a textbook "Psychology". These textbooks have not lost their meaning to this day. Today, these textbooks have been reprinted in print and have become indispensable textbooks for Kazakh students. Today, special attention is paid to the development of textbooks and teaching aids in the Kazakh language, improving their quality in the address of the president of the country to the people of Kazakhstan. Special attention was paid to updating the quality of textbooks written in the modern state language. Now that the issues of national schools are on the agenda, even in the 20s of the twentieth century, the creation of the first textbooks in the Kazakh language, which is necessary primarily for the population, shows its foresight. The problems of the native language, the state language, national schools, and national terminology are still relevant, important, and remain on the agenda.
Scientific heritage of Kh. Dosmukhamedov
He is a great scientist who has his own signature in the formation of higher education in Kazakhstan, in the training of national personnel, in the formation of publishing, in the development of textbooks and educational programs for newly opened Kazakh schools. Khalel Dosmukhamedov is the author of the first textbooks for Kazakh schools on subjects of the Natural Science cycle. From his pen, especially for Kazakh schools of stage I and II, the textbook "dead nature" (1920), "animal studies" (consisting of 3 parts), "Natural Science" (1922), "student hygiene" (1925), "human life", "save your health", etc. it should be noted that in the past there were textbooks that were very necessary for the newly opened Kazakh schools, but today they have not lost their significance. One of the main directions of Kh. Dosmukhamedov scientific heritage is the problems of linguistics and literature, history and Ethnography. His scientific works "Kazakh literature", "Alaman", "Words of Murat Akyn", "Sherniyaz sheshen", "Isatai-Makhambet", "Zhalantos batyr shezhiresi", "Divani lugat at Turk", "the law of syngarmonism in the Kazakh language" demonstrate his comprehensive, encyclopedic knowledge. Based on the archival data, the research works of Kh. Dosmukhamedov can be divided into 5 channels: 1-scientific, literary, methodological works and articles published in print; 2-manuscripts prepared for publication; 3-list of works headed by the general editorial office; 4 - translation works (central state archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, fund 81, list 1, case 1051, sheet 342). Among the high-quality scientific heritage of Kh. Dosmukhamedov, as an outstanding figure of National Education, a scientist-teacher, he occupies a special place in the history of the formation and development of the higher Pedagogical School in Kazakhstan. The lack of its own universities in Kazakhstan, the small number of special education schools created significant difficulties in solving the problem of teaching staff. In the conditions of the Republic in those years there was no cultural and material situation in the organization of pedagogical universities. Apparently, only those who arrived could go to higher educational institutions. In the early 20s of the XX century, mainly specialized personnel were trained outside the Republic in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Omsk, Ufa, Tashkent, Astrakhan and other cities. At such a difficult time, it was necessary to open a higher education institution in Kazakhstan. This issue has been discussed in various organizations and institutions since the foundation of the Republic. Especially in the field of pedagogical education, the need to organize an educational institution was felt. Therefore, since the issue of opening a higher pedagogical educational institution was first raised before the government of the Republic, Kh. Dosmukhamedov has been at the forefront of this issue and has made a huge contribution to its organization. It was necessary to open a higher educational institution in the capital of the Republic. However, due to the lack of an educational institution, a lack of specialist researchers, it was necessary to temporarily open it in the city of Tashkent, a large cultural heritage of that time, located near Kazakhstan. At that time, there were several higher educational institutions in Tashkent, including the Turkestan University, which was the first in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in 1920. Later, it became a central Asian University. On December 2, 1920, a resolution of the Council of people's commissars of the Republic of Turkestan was published on the opening of the Kazakh Institute of National Education with Kazakh language of instruction in Tashkent (see Bulletin of the Turkestan Central Executive Committee, December 2, 1920). In this large cultural center, the Kazakh Institute of National Education was rapidly strengthened and developed its activities comprehensively. Kh. Dosmukhamedov also took an active part in his educational and scientific work. On August 15, 1925, the Kazakh higher Pedagogical Institute "Kazpedvuz "was opened and started its work in Tashkent. To develop the curriculum of this Pedagogical Institute, special commission was created, which invited well-known methodologists and professor scientists from Tashkent. Among the invited guests were Dr. Kh. Dosmukhamedov, Professor N. A. Dimo, Professor Schmidt, Professor V. I. Romanovsky, Professor N. N. Fioletov, Associate Professor D. M. Barbotkin, Professor N. L. Lappo-Danilevsky and others. (See: Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, fund 81, list 1, case 1210, plate 26). When developing the draft curriculum of the Kazakh higher Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent, the commission, which worked under the leadership of Khalel, was different from the project of pedagogical Institutes of the RSFSR. The main principle here is to take into account local national features in the programs of disciplines. In addition to the best scientists of the Central Asian University, scientists of the academy from Moscow and Leningrad V. V. Barthold, S. E. Malov from the history of the Turkic-mangolic peoples and others were invited to work at the Kazakh higher Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent. At the same time, Professor Kh. Dosmukhamedov, along with Temirbek Zhurgenov, Alimkhan Yermekov, from among the local Kazakh intelligentsia, visited the Institute for educational work and lectures. Temirbek Zhurgenov, a graduate of the Central Asian University, a prominent figure of National Education, was appointed the first rector of the Kazakh higher Pedagogical Institute, which was headed by Kh. Dosmukhamedov. He taught pedology at the Institute. In 1928, Khalel Dosmukhamedov became the first vice – rector, one of the founders of the first Kazakh higher educational institution, now the Kazakh National State University named after Abay, organized on the basis of the Kazakh higher Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent. He was elected a corresponding member of the Central Bureau of local lore of the Russian Academy in 1924. In 1929, he was awarded the academic title of Professor of the Department of pedology of the University. Now we have begun to study our history without looking back, to learn the deep roots of our language, art, and spiritual heritage. On April 24, 2013, the 130th anniversary of the birth of the great scientist, public and statesman, educator, teacher, doctor, Professor Khalel Dosmukhamedov will be celebrated among the Giants who have made an invaluable contribution to the development of Science, the preservation of the language, the study of history, the development of art and literature, the organization of education and health care. In this regard, it is planned to hold a Republican scientific and theoretical conference at Kh. Dosmukhamedov Atyrau State University.